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The Siltuximab antibody is a chimeric mouse/human therapeutic antibody obtained from mouse hybridoma. It was designed to act as an anti-inflammatory and immunosuppressant drug, and it has been licensed for therapeutic use by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) and the European Medicines Agency (EMA) for the treatment of Multicentric Castlemans disease (MCD). MCD is a rare condition affecting lymph nodes and related tissues systemically. The disease is often associated with infections mediated by human herpesvirus 8 (HHV-8) and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). It may manifest mild symptoms in some patients but become life-threatening in others. Siltuximab is also currently under investigation for oncological conditions such as multiple myeloma, renal cell carcinoma, and neoplasm.
Siltuximab is one of several IgG1 antibodies known to bind the human interleukin 6 (IL-6) molecule, a soluble glycoprotein with a key role in pro-inflammatory responses. IL-6 is one of the main proinflammatory cytokines overexpressed in multiple pathologies (e.g. viral infections, rheumatoid arthritis, MCD, etc.). It is typically produced by T cells, B cells, monocytes, fibroblasts, and endothelial cells and it binds to a membrane-bound or soluble interleukin 6 receptor (IL6R). By binding its receptor, IL-6 has been shown to trigger different responses such as stimulate B cell proliferation, induce production of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), and cause immune system dysregulation, among others.
The exacerbated immune response known as cytokine storm or cytokine release syndrome has been recently linked to fatal or poor outcomes in the COVID-19 disease. The upper respiratory tract infection with a new strain of coronavirus SARS-CoV-2 may lead to this aberrant immune response which has been shown to cause extensive and irreversible lung damage. Siltuximab for COVID-19 treatment in mono or combinational regimen is currently being evaluated for efficiency and safety in clinical trials. Siltuximab cost information is available below. This product is for research use only.
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