Interleukins are cytokines that play a role in leukocytes signaling pathways. Although they were first thought to be expressed by leukocytes only, they are produced by many cell types. Interleukins were named after their activity on leukocytes. They were given numbers to be classified. Tens of them have been identified to date. Interleukins or analogues have been named with suffixes often ending with "kin".
Interleukins secretion is launched on pathogen detection. The type of infection will determine the set of different interleukins that will be expressed which in turn will determine the immune cells that will be activated. Interleukins are involved in activation, differentiation, maturation, proliferation, migration and adhesion of immune cells. Interleukins regulate inflammatory and immune response. They have antagonist functions as they can promote as well as block inflammatory response. Interleukins have a transient expression, their mRNA being highly unstable. Once synthetized, they are shortly secreted. Interleukins often mediate each other's level by promoting their production. They have complex effect that may change depending on the production cell type, the signal receiving cell type and the immune phase. The modulation of interleukins signal is based on a fine equilibrium in between interleukins and their modulators. As other cytokines they bind to cell surface receptors to trigger their signaling cascades. They act both with paracrine and autocrine mechanisms. They may be active in locations far from the cell they originate. A quite low level of interleukin is requested to activate their receptors and thus trigger the related activity.
Anti-Interleukins antibodies may be key to research and therapeutic development. Indeed Interleukins are involved in many intricate signaling mechanisms. Understanding these mechanisms is one of the main focus of Cell Biology and Immunology. ILs are critical to pathophysiology of many diseases making them potential drug targets. ProteoGenix offers a wide range of IL proteins and antibodies to study this complex field.