Looking for a high-quality VLP antibody that delivers consistent results? Look no further than our custom VLP antibody production service. With a wide range of customization methods available, we can tailor our services to meet your specific needs and budget, while our fast turnaround times ensure you get the results you need without the wait. With an average of 25 years of experience among our team of experts, you can trust us to deliver reliable, high-quality antibodies that are specifically adapted to fit your broad clinical applications or scientific ventures. With our rigorous quality control processes in place, you can be sure our antibodies will perform optimally for your intended application. So why wait? Contact us today to learn how we can help take your research to the next level.

Find the Perfect Method for Making Your Anti-VLP Antibody

Custom antibodies that specifically detect virus-like particles (VLPs) are in high demand due to their potential for use in research and diagnostics. ProteoGenix offers three methods for custom anti-VLP antibody production: antibody phage display, single B cell screening, and hybridoma. Each method has its unique advantages and disadvantages, allowing ProteoGenix to tailor the antibody production process to meet the specific needs of each client. In this guide, we will explore each method in detail and help you determine the best approach for your custom VLP antibody production needs.

Using Antibody Phage Display to Make Your Custom Anti-VLP Antibody

Antibody phage display is a powerful technology that enables the selection of custom monoclonal antibodies with high specificity and affinity against target antigens such as virus-like particles (VLPs). The technology involves creating an antibody phage display library, which is a collection of bacteriophages (viruses that infect bacteria) that each display a unique antibody fragment on their surface.

To create a phage display library, the DNA sequences that encode antibody variable regions are non-biasedly amplified using primers that hybridize to conserved DNA sequences in each antibody-encoding gene. The resulting antibody cDNA sequences are inserted into the genome of a bacteriophage where they are ligated to a bacteriophage surface protein, creating an antibody fused to the bacteriophage’s outer surface. Thus, the entire antibody repertoire of the animal host is captured in a library of genetically modified bacteriophages, each displaying a different antibody fragment on its surface.

ProteoGenix can use the antibody phage display libraries to identify custom monoclonal antibodies that bind your novel VLP. We achieve this by expressing the VLP antigen (or collecting it from our clients) and immobilizing it to a solid surface and screening antibody-fused bacteriophages for their ability to bind the VLP antigen.

Learn more about our antibody phage display method.

Naïve vs Immune Antibody Phage Display Libraries

There are two different types of phage display libraries: naive libraries and immune libraries. Naive libraries are created using antibody genes derived from non-immunized hosts, while immune libraries are created using antibody genes derived from immunized hosts. There are many differences between the two methods highlighted below.

Variable Naïve Antibody Phage Display Immune Antibody Phage Display
Library Source Derived from non-immunized hosts Derived from immunized hosts
Diversity High antibody diversity Lower antibody diversity to all antigens
Time Required Shorter time is required to generate a library. Phage display libraries are already built saving 11 to 16 weeks (50% reduction in time) Longer time is required to generate a library due to animal immunization
Screening Initial screening may require less specificity due to a lack of exposure. Capture a broader range of antibody candidates with lower affinity Initial screening may require more specificity due to the immune response. Capture a narrower range of antibodies with lower affinity
Target Suitable for identifying novel targets due to diverse antibody repertoires Suitable for identifying high affinity antibodies that bind the specific immunized antigen(s)targets
Affinity Generally, this results in lower-affinity antibodies Generally, this results in higher-affinity antibodies
Pre-built libraries Pre-built naïve human, rabbit, and camelid (llama, alpaca, camel) libraries available Custom-make your immune library with no species limitations. No pre-built library. The library is constructed with your own antigen
Antibody Formats Choose from Fab, scFv, or VHH antibody formats Choose from Fab, scFv, or VHH antibody formats

Naive antibody phage display is a method for identifying antibodies from a pre-existing library of antibodies without the need for immunization. This method has several advantages, including a reduced risk of selecting non-specific or self-reactive antibodies and a faster turnaround time.

Immune antibody phage display, on the other hand, involves using an animal model to produce an immune response against a specific antigen of interest. This method allows for the identification of antibodies with high affinity and specificity for the target antigen.

The table compares these two methods in terms of several variables, including time, cost, library size, antibody affinity, and specificity. While immune antibody phage display can result in antibodies with higher affinity and specificity, naive antibody phage display is a faster and more cost-effective method for identifying antibodies, particularly when pre-built libraries are available.

Custom VLP Antibodies Can Be Identified Using a Naïve Library

Building a custom immune antibody phage display library is necessary if you prefer a continuous source of novel high-affinity monoclonal antibodies that bind an array of different VLP antigens. Often, the less expensive pre-built naïve phage display libraries are sufficient to identify a high-performing monoclonal antibody that binds your VLP. This means that you can save time and money by screening your VLP antigen for antibody-binding candidates using one of our pre-built antibody phage display libraries.

A pre-built naïve phage display library likely already contains your high-performance VLP antibody. Here is why. Adaptive immune systems are constantly exposed to various pathogens and antigens in their environment. While it is difficult to estimate the exact number of antibodies with a unique antigen-binding potential present in an animal host’s body, current estimates suggest as many as 5×109 unique antibodies exist in the blood of a healthy adult human at any given time (the naïve antibody repertoire). Thus, the vast diversity of the naïve antibody repertoire makes it highly probable that the library already contains an antibody with the desired antigen-binding potential.

Naive Library Workflow

Antigen procurement or design and production

  • VLP antigen produced by ProteoGenix
  • Off-the-shelf VLP antigen
  • VLP antigen produced by you

Library screening and biopanning

  • Screening of naive or immune library for antigen binders

ELISA screening of single phage binders

  • Further binder validation by ELISA screening

DNA extraction & antibody sequencing

Benefits of Using Custom Immune Libraries for VLP Antibody Production

Custom immune libraries are a valuable investment when looking for VLP monoclonal antibodies that require high specificity and affinity. While pre-built naïve phage display libraries can be a cost-effective option for identifying antibody candidates, custom immune libraries provide a constant source of high-affinity antibodies that can bind to an array of novel VLP antigens.
By choosing a custom immune library, you can ensure that your antibody discovery process is tailored to your specific needs and that you will have a unique antibody that fits your research requirements. Our team at ProteoGenix can work with you to design and generate a custom immune library that is optimized to identify the antibody you need to achieve your research goals.

Explore how our custom immune phage display library service can provide a constant source of high-affinity anti-VLP antibodies in various antibody formats.

Immune Library Workflow

Antigen procurement or design and production

  • VLP antigen produced by ProteoGenix
  • Off-the-shelf VLP antigen
  • VLP antigen produced by you

Immune library construction

  • PBMC isolation
  • RNA extraction and cDNA synthesis
  • VH and VL PCR amplification
  • Library construction and quality control

Library screening and biopanning

  • Screening of naive or immune library for antigen binders

ELISA screening of single phage binders

  • Further binder validation by ELISA screening

DNA extraction & antibody sequencing

Custom Anti-VLP Antibodies Using the Single B-cell Screening Method

Single B cell screening is a powerful technique used to generate custom antibodies that specifically recognize a target of interest, such as a virus-like particle (VLP). In this process, B cells from an immunized animal are isolated and sorted using a technique called fluorescence-activated cell sorting (FACS).

Once isolated, the DNA from individual B cells is sequenced to identify the unique antibody sequences produced by each cell. These sequences can then be used to produce recombinant antibodies that specifically bind to the VLP of interest. Single B cell screening is a highly effective method for generating custom antibodies that can be tailored to specific applications, as it allows for the isolation of rare B cells that produce high-affinity antibodies.

Learn more about our single B cell screening process.

Hybridoma Cell Line Generation Workflow

Antigen procurement or design and production

  • VLP antigen produced by ProteoGenix
  • Off-the-shelf VLP antigen
  • VLP antigen produced by you


  • MMouse or rat immunization

Cell Fusion

  • Splenocytes collection from 2 mice (or rats)
  • Fusion with a myeloma cell line

Hybridoma Selection and Screening (Polyclonal Stage)

  • Hybrid cell selection (HAT selection) culture supernatant screening vs target antigen (ELISA screening).

Isolation of Cell Clones

  • Monoclones are isolated by limited dilution.
  • Expansion and screening of the monoclones by ELISA or in target application.

Virus-like Particles (VLPs) Immunogenicity Compared to Single-Protein Antigens

Virus-like particles are considered to be better antigens than single-protein antigens because they can activate both innate and adaptive immune responses more effectively. VLPs can mimic the natural structure of viruses, which helps to elicit a stronger immune response. This is because VLPs can interact with pattern recognition receptors (PRRs) on immune cells, which recognize and respond to conserved molecular patterns present on pathogens, such as viruses.
Additionally, VLPs can be recognized by B cells as foreign particles, which can lead to the production of high-affinity antibodies against the VLPs. This makes VLPs more effective at inducing protective immune responses, which can help prevent viral infections. In contrast, single protein antigens may not have the same level of structural complexity as VLPs, and may not elicit as strong of an immune response.

Why B cell Screening Can Be Ideal for Making your Anti-VLP Antibody

VLPs are great immunogens making single B cell screening a good method to use for making custom anti-VLP antibodies. This is because the high degree of VLP immunogenicity increases the likelihood of finding antigen-specific B cells, even if their frequency is low.
Single B cell screening can identify and isolate individual B cells that produce high-affinity antibodies against a specific antigen, in this case, the VLP. By screening large numbers of individual B cells, the probability of finding rare VLP-specific B cells producing high-affinity antibodies increases significantly. Therefore, single B cell screening can be particularly valuable for VLPs that are difficult to produce using other methods or for those that have not been previously characterized.

Custom VLP Antibodies Using the Hybridoma Method

Hybridoma technology is a powerful method to produce custom monoclonal antibodies against specific antigens, such as VLPs. It involves fusing a B cell (which produces antibodies) with a cancer cell to create a hybrid cell called a hybridoma. The B cell provides the specificity for the desired antigen, while the cancer cell provides the ability to grow indefinitely in culture.
Once the hybridoma cell is created, it is cultured and screened for the production of the desired antibody. The hybridoma cells that produce the desired antibody are then selected, cloned, and cultured to produce large amounts of the antibody.
This method is useful because it can produce large quantities of a specific monoclonal antibody, which can be used for a variety of research and diagnostic applications. Additionally, hybridoma technology can produce monoclonal antibodies with high specificity and affinity for the target antigen, making them useful tools in a variety of research and diagnostic applications.

B-cell Screening Workflow

Antigen procurement or design and production

  • VLP antigen produced by ProteoGenix
  • Off-the-shelf VLP antigen
  • VLP antigen produced by you


  • Rabbit immunization using 4-6 rounds of optimized immunizations

FACS Sorting + ELISA screening

  • Antigen-specific B-cell sorting,
    B-cell culture, and supernatant screening by ELISA

Positive Clones Sequenced and Expressed

  • Selection of clones with highest binding affinity
  • Transient expression using high performance XtenCHO cells

Screening of the antibodies produced

Method Advantages Disadvantages
Antibody Phage Display
  • Large library size with high diversity
  • Allows for selection of antibodies against conformational epitopes
  • Can be used to select for high affinity binders
  • Short timeline if no immunization is required
  • No species restriction
  • Possibility to obtain human antibodies
  • Limited success in selecting antibodies against certain antigens
  • May require extensive screening to isolate desired antibody
Single B Cell Screening
  • High specificity for desired antibody
  • Allows for direct identification of B cells producing desired antibody
  • Can be used to select for high affinity and rare binders
  • Limited by the frequency of antigen-specific B cells
  • Requires advanced technical expertise and specialized equipment
  • Species restrictions
  • Established and well-characterized method
  • Allows for the production of large amounts of antibody
  • Can be used to select for high affinity binders
  • Produces highly specific antibodies.
  • Budget friendly
  • Careful maintenance of hybridoma cell lines is required, but they produce consistent antibody yields
  • May require extensive screening
  • Targeting some antigens may be challenging, but this is of limited concern when using immunogenic VLPs
  • Cell fusion process results in a loss of B cells
  • Species restrictions