Stem cells are undifferentiated cells which have the property of self- renewal and potency. Self-renewal means that they are able to divide multiple times keeping their undifferentiated state. Potency describes their ability to differentiate in different type of cells. These cells are found in multicellular organism. Stem cells can be themselves of different types depending on their localization such as embryonic stem cells (ESC), adult stem cells, mesenchymal stem cells (MSC), hematopoietic stem cells (HSC), neural stem cells, and cancer stem cells.
Proteogenix offers a wide range of stem cells related products such as transcription factors and cell surface proteins, markers of this type of cells and antibodies targeting those proteins.
Stem Cells science
Embryonic Stem Cells
Stem cells can be found in embryos as well as in adult organisms. Embryonic Stem Cells (ESC) can be studied in developmental biology at the early stage in form of blastocyst and gastrula cells. At these points they are pluripotent which means that they are able to differentiate in a wide range of cells type. Indeed the embryo undergoes differentiations from one cell type to hundreds. In order to keep its stem cell ability Embryonic Stem cells have a specific cell cycle control. Embryonic Stem cells can be recognized by specific markers such as transcription factors Oct-4, Nanog, or Sox2. Embryonic Stem Cells can be collected and cultured in vitro for research or therapeutic use.
Adult Stem cells
Adult or Somatic Stem cells are found in special localizations or niches such as bone marrow, adipose tissues, blood or gonads. They are multipotent cells which mean they can differentiate in more limited types of cells than pluripotent ones.
Mesenchymal Stem cells
Mesenchymal Stem cells are multipotent stem cells found in adult organism itissues. They can fill in gaps in case of injuries in epidermal layers, muscles or bones. Their abilities make them a target of clinical studies for regenerative medicine. They express various markers such as CD105.
Stem cells research and treatments
Stem cells therapies, such as bone marrow transplant are used to rapidly and efficiently replace deficient cells by newly differentiated cells. It has been used against leukemia or other bone or blood cancers.
Adult Stem cells collection is less ethically debated than the one of Ebryonic Stem Cells as the latter induces the death of the embryo. However the latter cells are pluripotent which is more interesting for therapist and research purposes. Therefore induced Pluripotent Stem Cells (iPSC) have been developed. This reprogramming of somatic stem cells is done through a set of transcription factors. It can be used in wide set of application in vitro as well as potential in therapies.